JUNE 11, 2021


Heat exchangers are used in both heating and cooling processes to transfer heat waste from one process or place for use in another. They validate the thermal energy from a liquid or gas to pass to another liquid or gas without the two having to come into direct contact. Common everyday examples include domestic radiators (which transfer heat from a boiler to a room) and car radiators (which take heat away from the engine).


Plate Heat Exchangers:

These consist of thin, crumpled plates packed inside a frame, with the product in alternate channels, and service fluid in between the product channels. They are ideal for applications where the fluids have relatively low conductivity with no particles. They are also an ideal choice where product outlet temperature is close to the service inlet temperature.

Performance can be enhancing through clever design, such as using herringbone patterned heat transfer plates. These are congregate in an inverse formation to create two sets of parallel channels, one for each liquid. Since the herringbone patterns point in opposite directions, a high number of points of support are achieved, creating a lattice in each channel. This provides a high level of turbulence, which in turn leads to a raised rate of heat transfer.

Tubular & Corrugated Tube Heat Exchangers:

Tubular heat exchangers consist of one or more tubes within a shell, with the product flowing in the tubes and the service fluid flowing over the tubes (through the shell). By using corrugated tube technology, both heat transfer and regulation are increased over standard smooth tube heat exchangers.

In addition, potential fouling is minimised, making it possible to supply more compact and economical heat exchangers. Specific models have been developed for various types of industries, and are often manufactured from stainless steel for use in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers:

These are used in applications where fouling causes heat transfer rates to drop, or when viscous fluids have very low heat transfer rates. Fouling occurs when fluids humiliate near the tube wall and layers of solids are deposited the tube wall. These layers work as an insulator and prevent essential heat transfer.

Another form of fouling is crystallisation where, due to cooling or increasing concentration, components in the fluid are deposited on the heat exchanger surface. Scraping the heat transfer surface to eliminate these layers of fouling maintains high heat transfer rates in such situations. In general, the more viscous the fluid, the lower the heat transfer rate, so very viscous fluids essential very large heat transfer areas. Scraped surface heat exchangers mix the fluid vigorously, which increases the amount of fluid coming into contact with the heat exchange surface. This increases the heat transfer rates and reduces the surface area essential.


Graphite is a result of the solid-phase variation of the amorphous state of carbon to its softer, crystalline state. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon. Natural graphite is formed by subjecting carbon in the late, accidentally manufactured synthetic graphite while trying to create synthetic diamonds. Instead, he found that at ambient pressure amorphous carbon can be converted to crystalline graphite

Graphite reveals the properties of a metal and a nonmetal. The metallic properties include high thermal and electrical conductivity. The nonmetallic properties include inertness. This resistance to corrosion allows graphite to withstand a wide range of harsh and corrosive process streams.

Graphite is especially well suited for use with strong reducing acids with high chloride contents (e.g., hydrochloric acid). In addition to hydrochloric acid, other common applications include evaporation, precipitation, or simple heating and cooling of nitric acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid.


Heat exchangers come in many shapes and sizes, and they can utilize a variety of exciting heat transfer techniques depending on a given application’s needs. Being able to fit into practically any design makes them highly versatile, and therefore highly beneficial, thermal management solutions. Among their many benefits, however, three of the most important include the ability to save a maximum amount of space, their reduced influence on the environment, and their reduced need for energy and routine maintenance costs.

Smaller Spatial Footprint

With the improvement of modern technology, it seems that more powerful also means smaller; smaller personal devices, smaller and more variable manufacturing equipment, and more. The shrinking space in electrical cabinets raises the risks of heat pockets and resulting damage to electrical components, which increases the need for smaller and more efficient cooling solutions, such as heat exchangers.

Lower Environmental Impact

To be effective, heat exchangers must run constantly to ensure that high-powered control panels don’t overheat. One of the greatest benefits of modern heat exchangers is that they do not rely on additional equipment, such as an air conditioning or air compressing unit, to operate. Therefore, they use importantly less energy and produce little or no pollution compared to more conventional cooling methods.

Minimal Operating Costs

Because heat exchangers do not use intricate external equipment, and because they are designed to eliminate most contamination, they do not need to be maintained as often as air conditioners. They also don’t break down and can last for several times longer than most air conditioning units before needing repair or substitution.


Tube heat exchanger is used for logical heat transfer between two fluids. Tube in tube heat exchanger finds its application in industries where heat treatment is subjected to fluids of high viscosity, density, or high fiber or solid particle defile. In this article, we find the best answer to the question of what is tube in tube heat exchangers and discuss an overview of all you need to know about this type of heat exchanger.


With various heat exchanger designs on the market, selecting the most acceptable design for transferring heat between fluids requires some knowledge of differences between heat exchanger styles. Process essential come from fundamental properties of processed fluids such as viscosity and particulates. Processes also have thermal output essential or amounts of heat that must transfer between fluids and the temperature change that must chance by the end of the process.


In a smooth tube, fluids commonly follow a smooth path, and the particles of the fluid do not interfere with each other. Introducing corrugation creates turbulence, which creates turbulent flow and more effective heat exchange. Turbulent flow prevents sticky materials from sticking to the wall of the tube, where they can act as insulation and prevent efficient heat transfer. The turbulence also intercepts materials in suspension from dropping out of the carrier fluid and having a related effect.


Heat exchangers with double tube sheets make communicate easy to spot because they appear at the joint in the outer tube plate. The heating fluid is sealed in the shell by the first tube sheet and the second tube sheet seals the product. In the event of a leak, the leakage of either fluid is easily visually detected.

Shell and tube heat exchangers are exceptionally effective in the pharmaceutical industry where product hygiene and demand for isolating products from heating/cooling fluids are especially high. To meet the industry’s demands, high-quality tubular heat exchangers control microbe growth and intercept cross-contamination.


Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

These are the most common and adaptable types of heat exchangers. This heat exchanger is developed with multiple tubes in which the two working fluids exchange heat by thermal contact which is placed within a cylindrical shell. As such, one fluid flows inside the tubes and the other through the shell.

While flowing they exchange heat which means the cold liquid receives heat from the hot liquid. Shell and tube heat exchangers are condense in design, easy to maintain, and give excellent heat exchange. This heat exchanger is used for preheating, oil cooling, and steam generation.

Tube in Tube Heat Exchanger

Tube-in-tube heat exchanger particularly designed for sludge containing fibres and particles, used for heating and cooling purposes. Tube in tube heat exchangers is introduced with a tube mounted inside an outer shell tube.

During operation, the product medium inside the tube floats into the service medium in counter current. The product tube is folded, or it may be smooth. This unique design prevents thermal fatigue, increases regulation, and reduces overall size. They are perfect for high temperature, high pressure, and low flow applications.

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

These types of heat exchangers are absolute for the transfer or exchange of heat between two liquids without mixing them. Double pipe heat exchangers consist of two or more concentric, cylindrical pipes or tubes

Direct and Indirect Heat Exchanger

Direct heat exchangers implement heat transfer between two phases of hot and cold currents in the absence of an isolating wall. In these types of heat exchangers, heat exchange is return by direct mixing of hot and cold liquids and transfer heat place simultaneously. Examples include cooling towers and jet condensers.

Indirect heat exchangers are used to measuring the change in temperature of one fluid by using another fluid in which the two liquids are separated by an tight surface such that the two liquids do not mix. These heat exchangers keep the fluid interchange heat separated by the use of tubes or plates etc.

Plate Heat Exchanger

These types of heat exchangers consist of metal plates. These metal plates form channels through which the depend on fluids can flow. Plate heat exchangers use multiple layers of flat plates fixed to form a series of channels for the flow of fluids.

In this, the heat cuts through the surface so it separates the hot medium from the cold one. Thus, heating and cooling liquids and gases use minimal energy levels. They can often be more dense and sometimes less costly than shell and tube. These types of commonly used in water heaters and free cooling.


Shell and tube systems function by passing a fluid through a set of tubes that is located within a sealed shell that contains another fluid. The liquids can move in the same direction (parallel flow), opposite directions (counter flow) or at right angles (cross flow) Plate heat exchangers incorporate many thin metal plates to provide a large surface area with narrow channels to transfer the heat promptly.

Air cooled heat exchangers tend to be used where ambient air is the cooling mechanism. The air is forced or drawn through a tube bundle or core by rans. These can range from large units on oil refineries to small units for train cabins.


Air Cooled Heat Exchanger (ACHE) is a heat rejection equipment where the excess process heat is decline to the atmosphere. It works on the principle of radiative and conduction to dissipate heat from process fluid to air. The process fluid passes through the tubes and air stream is passed over the tubes to carry away the heat; air streams are created by the fans mounted on the unit. By appropriate selecting the tube material, can effectively cool or precipitate process water, chemicals or any other heat transfer fluid.


Although there are many different types of heat exchangers within each industry, their functions are largely the same. These products not only heat elements up, but they may also cool them down as needed. Both heating and cooling may be especially important to the regulation of the plant, but cooling is often the more important task since many pieces of equipment will not function properly and safely if overheated.

In industrial applications, heat exchangers serve a number of important applications. In some units, the exchangers will capture the heat which is being released and redirect it into the process so that it can be put to use to increase regulation and save the plant money. Other heat exchangers keep machinery or chemicals within a safe operating temperature.


Several oil and gas industry processes depend on the heat’s rapid generation or dissipation to maintain optimal productivity. Heat exchangers are generally employed in the following oil and gas systems:

• Heat/oil transfer systems
• Fuel gas conditioning systems
• Cold ammonia flow control
• Lube oil systems
• Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) Units
• Heat Exchangers and Fuel Gas Conditioning Systems

Skid-mounted fuel gas conditioning systems constitute another industrially useful application for heat exchangers. During routine operation, fuel gas conditioning systems generate a lot of heat to establish a steady flow of dry, high-purity fuel. These actions ensure the longevity of system components. As a result, heat exchangers are often include into fuel gas systems to provide an optimal thermal environment for their smooth operation.

Heat Exchangers and Cold Ammonia Flow Control

Flue gas control is often quite stringent, requiring industrial operators to carefully monitor the quality of gases being released by their processes. Cold ammonia flow control units, which the quantity of ammonia being introduced into a stream of flue gas/air, utilize a pressurized and heated processes require an industrial heat exchanger. Heat Exchangers and Lube Oil Systems

Lube oil systems combine all the materials and equipment needed to generate high-quality lubricants in a thermally powered blending process. Critical components of a proper skid-mounted lube oil blender include:

• Mixers
• Kettles
• Electrical switchgear
• Instrumentation
• PLC controls


Heat exchangers all work by passing a hot fluid and a cold fluid across opposite sides of a piece of metal. The heat from one fluid passes across the metal (which is thermally conductive) into the other fluid without the fluids making contact. High fluid velocity, high turbulence, high surface area and a large temperature differential all provide to more efficient heat transfer. However, different designs are more efficient than others depending on the application.

There are three common kinds of heat exchangers. They can all be essential in a variety of heat transfer applications, but optimizing efficiency, cost and space depends heavily on the particular process in which the heat exchanger is installed. This article explains the basic qualitative differences between common heat exchangers to help you decide which is most suitable for your application.

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

The shell and tube heat exchanger in the photo above has about twelve times the regulation than a hypothetical single-tube heat exchanger of the same size. However, there is a disadvantage to smaller tubes – if the fluid in your application is very viscous or has particulates, it can foul up the tube and undermine the heat transfer process.

Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger

Plate heat exchangers are constructed with a series of plates held together in a large frame. There are two inputs and two outputs, and the spaces between plates alternate between the two liquids (hot, cold, hot, cold, etc. as shown above, right). This design lends itself to very high heat transfer regulation due to large surface area – much higher than a shell and tube heat exchanger taking up similar space. Plate heat exchangers are also much easier to clean and maintain, because they’re planned to be relatively easy to disassemble and examine.

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